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Following is a Chinese version of a previously published blog:

2014年11月20日,奥巴马总统发表了社会各界期待已久的移民改革“行政决定”。事项总汇 我们也会持续更新有关信息。奥巴马总统在去年已经表示此行政决定将延迟到中期选举之后。尽管参众两院的共和党领袖对此举措表示强烈反对,并声称奥巴马总统的行为滥用权力且无法律依据,但是,总统行政决定中的计划将通过政策规定的更新、改变和调整而立即实施。决定反对者已经表示将通过诉诸法律程序,削减经费来源以及其他政治途径来阻止决定的执行。我们会继续跟进相关发展和变化。

以下内容简要总结了这项行政决定对商业的影响。我们将决定内容分为三部分:1)通过规则进行的变动;2)需要监管行为而实施的变动; 3)“总统备忘录”过程中仍需讨论的变动内容。

在无新法规下实行的行政规则Administration Guidance without New Regulation

• 扩展暂缓遣返。暂缓遣返(提供合法工作许可和“回美证”)包括:

o 美国公民和永久居民的父母(但必须在美国居住满5年并且在2010年1月1日之前进入美国国境。)

o 扩大目前的暂缓遣返:在美居住满5年以上的个人—不再有年龄限制。

• 就地赦免。放宽就地赦免条件, Matter of Arrabally & Yerrabelly将适用于所有持“回美证”人员进出美国境。

• 对于创造就业岗位和填补短缺行业岗位的人员提供国家利益豁免计划。

• H-1B上限豁免。重释宽泛定义“附属或相关非盈利机构”为高等教育机构以符合INA §214(g)(5)(A) 规定的H-1B上限豁免。

通过行政程序法/联邦公报的监管变动

• 允许研究人员,发明创造者或商业创始人以企业家身份用“回美证”进入美国境内。

• 扩大对持F-1签证即将毕业学生的OPT校外工作许可:

o STEM专业(科学、技术、工程、数学类)学生的 OPT将会延长,STEM专业定义也将延伸。

• 早期调整。允许符合身份调整的个人申请,但是优先日期要在签证配额积压期中。该申请人可以申请身份调整并获得工作许可和“回美证”。

• 对持 H-1B人员配偶的工作许可。目前法规在最后审核阶段

• 改进L-1行政判决程序:

o 制定L-1B详细规则。

关于移民改革总统备忘录—进一步讨论

• 借用永久居留数额—取决于国会品准但未用完的数额。当政府在某一财政年度未分配每个移民签证种类的签证数量时,国务院会保证未用完的签证数量在下一年度使用,使国会各项计划有效执行。

• 配偶和子女将不会被划为优先限额中。

• 帮助重塑商务签证程序的其它相关重要事项。

暂缓遣返延长中的合规问题

对于已在美国工作的人员来说,临时保障的延长会令其雇主更加困惑这些人员的身份状态,也会让工作许可验证合规的程序变得不可预料。比如,当一个雇员告诉雇主,他/她其实一直在用虚假身份工作,并让雇主提供其工作历史的证据来获得行政保障时,雇主会更容易会成为受害方。因为雇主将会因为之前雇用无工作许可人员而面临潜在的刑事责任,而且也可能因为雇用之前利用虚假文件而获得工作许可的员工而面对歧视指控。向没有工作许可人员提供文件的雇主也可能会成为政府强制措施的目标。

总统行政决定中涉及的各项内容非常需要从立法角度来加以阐释。我们将继续为读者更新此方面的信息及解读各角度视点。

 

 

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Photo of Laura Foote Reiff‡ Laura Foote Reiff‡

Laura Foote Reiff is the Co-Managing Shareholder of the Northern Virginia Office. She also Co-Chairs the firm’s Labor & Employment Practice’s International Employment, Immigration & Workforce Strategies group. Laura focuses her practice on business immigration laws and regulations affecting U.S. and foreign companies,

Laura Foote Reiff is the Co-Managing Shareholder of the Northern Virginia Office. She also Co-Chairs the firm’s Labor & Employment Practice’s International Employment, Immigration & Workforce Strategies group. Laura focuses her practice on business immigration laws and regulations affecting U.S. and foreign companies, as well as related employment compliance and legislative issues.

Laura advises corporations on a variety of compliance-related issues, particularly related to Form I-9 eligibility employment verification matters. Laura has been involved in audits and internal investigations and has successfully minimized monetary exposure as well as civil and criminal liabilities on behalf of her clients. She develops immigration compliance strategies and programs for both small and large companies. Laura performs I-9, H-1B and H-2B compliance inspections during routine internal reviews, while performing due diligence (in the context of a merger, acquisition or sale) or while defending a company against a government investigation.

Laura represents many businesses in creating, managing and using “Regional Centers” that can create indirect jobs toward the 10 new U.S. jobs whose creation can give rise to EB-5 permanent residence for investment. She coordinates this work with attorneys practicing in securities law compliance, with economists identifying “targeted employment areas” and projecting indirect job creation, and with licensed securities brokers coordinating offerings. She also represents individual investors in obtaining conditional permanent residence and in removing conditions from permanent residence.

Laura’s practice also consists of managing business immigration matters and providing immigration counsel to address the visa and work authorization needs of U.S. and global personnel including professionals, managers and executives, treaty investors/ traders, essential workers, persons of extraordinary ability, corporate trainees, and students. She is an immigration policy advocacy expert and works on immigration reform policies.